- Hardwood species with an average specific gravity greater than 0.50, such as oaks, hickories, or hard maples. See also "soft hardwoods".
- The property of wood that is indicated by a resistance to cutting, scratching, denting, pressure or wear. Generally the higher the density, the harder the wood. Also related to the hardness is the ease of which nails or screws can be driven into the wood.
Very Soft: Very easily dented.
Soft: Somewhat easy to dent.
Hard: Somewhat difficult to dent.
Very Hard: Extremely difficult to dent.
- A general term referring to any variety of broad-leaved, deciduous trees, and the wood from those trees. The term has nothing to do with the actual hardness of the wood; some hardwoods are softer than certain softwood (evergreen) species.
- Any rot characteristically confined to the heartwood. It generally originates in the living tree.
- A shake or crack radiating out from the heartwood. See also "radial crack" and "check".
- A discoloration of the heartwood.
- The dead inner core of a tree between the pith to the sapwood. Heartwood may be infiltrated with gums, resins, and other materials which usually make it darker and more decay-resistant than sapwood.
- Term for the condition of a log where the small central core or pith of the log or tree is hollowed out. This is usually related to ants but gives the appearance of decay. One major problem with hollow pith is a tendency for decay to form around the pith. Hollow pith also complicates (or enhances) the use of a piece of wood for turning on a lathe.
- 1) Pits or spots in wood caused by fungi. It develops in the living tree and does not develop further in wood in service.
2) a defect in wood created by improper drying, resulting in cellular separation in the interior of a piece of
wood, usually along the wood rays (internal splits or collapse that cannot be seen on the surface).
The Wood Glossary