- The portion of the annual growth ring that is formed during the early part of the growing season. It is usually less dense and weaker mechanically than latewood.
- The narrow face of a rectangular-shaped piece of lumber.
- Lumber sawed parallel with the pith of the log and approximately at right angles to the growth rings; that is, the rings form an angle of 45° or more with the wide face of the piece (also known as quarter-sawn).
- Lumber that has been sawed so that the wide surfaces extend approximately at right angles to the annual growth rings. Lumber is considered edge grained when the rings form an angle of 45° to 90° with the wide surface of the piece (also known as quarter-sawn lumber).
- Smoothing and squaring the edge of a board so that it can be glued up
squarely to another piece.
- A knot whose rings of annual growth are not intergrown with those of the surrounding wood.
- A surface check at the end of a piece of lumber.
- A paint-like material applied to the end grain of wood to stop it splitting (such as commercial “Anchorseal” or home-spun alternative like old paint, roofing tar, etc). This slows the loss of moisture thru the more-porous endgrain of the wood, to reduce the differential drying stresses and slow (or hopefully stop) the development of radial checks in the endgrain while the wood is drying. Used on logs while awaiting sawing or parting into turning blanks, turning blanks while awaiting rough-out, and rough-turned bowls (and other turnings) while undergoing final drying prior to finish-turning.
- The grain as seen on a cut made at a right angle to the direction of the fibers (e.g., on a cross section of a tree).
- To tongue and groove the ends of matched lumber.
- A lengthwise separation of the wood fibers at the end of a piece of lumber.
Equilibrium moisture content (EMC)
- The moisture content at which wood neither gains nor loses moisture when surrounded by air at a given relative humidity and temperature. The point at which the level of moisture in a board is equal to the moisture in the surrounding air. Wood is constantly attempting to lose or gain moisture to achieve equilibrium with its present environment. This moisture exchange maybe slowed, but not stopped, regardless of the finishes or sealers.
- Sale of lumber to be shipped to a foreign country.
- Wholesaler or broker selling to a foreign market.
- Substances in wood, not an integral part of the cellular structure, that can be dissolved out with hot or cold water, ether, benezene, or other relatively inert solvents.
The Wood Glossary